Animal Emotions and That Icky Sticky Fear

animal emotions

 “Lacking a shared language, emotions are perhaps our most effective means of cross-species communication. We can share our emotions, we can understand the language of feelings, and that’s why we form deep and enduring social bonds with many other beings. Emotions are the glue that binds.” ― Bekoff

 

Ants teach.  Earthworms make decisions.  Rats are ticklish.  Chimps grieve.  Horses understand and react to human facial expression.  Some dogs have a thousand-word vocabulary.  Birds practice songs in their sleep.  Mice and rats show empathy.  Crows use tools.  Jays plan ahead.  Moths remember being caterpillars.  Cats are worlds wiser than your iPad.

What else will we learn about animals today?

 


In my last post I discussed how our personal and collective fears affect progress, success, and peace with our pets and within ourselves.  This follow up post is intended to help you to become aware of the range of emotions that animals can experience.  When we begin to see our pets as conscious beings who can experience deep and profound emotions we are better equipped with the knowledge and empathy to help them, when life challenges arise.  My hope is that you learn something here so you and your animal companions can live a more fulfilling and peaceful life together, no matter what comes your way.


Emotional Beings

Most people believe that animals have some emotions.  But there is a lot more happening within animals than most realize. Did you know that some animals, when faced with stressors, often respond in body and mind the way humans do? It’s really amazing.

Let’s take a look at what emotions are.

From the scientific perspective, emotions are the internal changes in the body (hormones, adrenal glands, etc.) that cause changes in expression (the animal’s external behavior), and the thoughts and feelings that accompany them.  From the layman’s perspective, they are feelings one experiences in the mind that affect one’s mood and body.

Emotions have evolved as animal adaptations in many species.  Emotions serve as a “social glue” to bond animals together.  Emotions also regulate a wide range of social encounters among both friends and competitors.  Emotions allow animals to protect themselves by using numerous behavior patterns in a wide variety of settings.

To assume that animals are incapable of experiencing the same kinds of fears and stresses that we as humans experience is a common pitfall and misconception of pet parents.  Animals are very capable of experiencing a wide range of emotions!  Like us, many companion animals can and do experience a range of basic emotions such as happiness, sadness, fear, disgust, anger, grief, and surprise.

“Common sense and intuition feed into and support science sense, and the obvious conclusion is that at least mammals experience rich and deep emotional lives, feeling passions ranging from pure and contagious joy shared so widely among others during play that it is almost epidemic, to deep grief and pain. There also are recent data that show that birds and fish also are sentient and experience pain and suffering.”


love hormone_animal emotions_conscious Companion


Sentient Beings

We are hearing more often these days that animals are “sentient beings”, but what is sentience? What does this mean?

“Sentient animals may be aware of a range of sensations and emotions, of feeling pain and suffering, and of experiencing a state of well being. Sentient animals may be aware of their surroundings and of what happens to them.”

-CIWF

Sentience is the ability to feel or perceive the world around you and as a result have subjective experiences (i.e. good, bad or neutral experiences). In its most basic sense, sentience is the ability to have sensations and as a result have experiences which then may be used to guide future actions and reactions.

Animal Emotions_fear


Similar Brain Structures

Thanks to research with imaging studies we now know that some animals have many of the same brain structures, hormones, and neurotransmitters that humans do. Just like humans, animals have temporal, occipital, frontal and parietal lobes of their cerebral cortex. Each region is connected in the same way. We’ve also learned that emotions are centered in the limbic system, (known as the mammalian brain). We also know that emotions such as fear, frustration, and anger drive a lot of unwanted behaviors in animals (just like in people!)

Neuroscientific research has even shown, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, that elephants have a huge hippocampus. This is a brain structure in the limbic system that’s important in processing emotions. We now know that elephants suffer from psychological flashbacks and likely experience the equivalent of post-traumatic stress disorder.


Animals’ Advanced Abilities 

Most people believe that a human’s ability to communicate is far more complex and evolved than that of other species, but cetaceans have us beat. Cetaceans have several sound producing organs. They are capable of conveying and receiving 20 times the amount of information as we can with our ability to process sounds!  This surpasses the amount of information we can perceive based on vision (a human’s primary sense).

Research with cetaceans has even discovered that the frontal and temporal lobes (which are connected by their function in speech production and language processing) are capable of astounding abilities.  Communication is so spectacular in cetaceans that scientists believe there is a strong possibility that this species is able to project an “auditory image.” via sonar messages they receive.  The researches at MSU claim, “A dolphin wishing to convey the image of a fish to another dolphin can literally send the image of a fish to the other animal. The equivalent of this in humans would be the ability to create instantaneous holographic pictures to convey images to other people.”

Yeah.  So that’s happening in the ocean and in captivity.  Just let that sink in for a moment.

animal brain_intelligece_play_emotions


Pets, People, and the Mind’s Landscape

Could our pet’s mental map be similar to ours? According to researchers at Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine, the physical structure of our brain and that of felines are very similar.  Cats have the same lobes as we do in the cerebral cortex (the “seat” of intelligence).  And our brains function the same way, by conveying data via identical neurotransmitters.

In the region of the brain which controls emotion, they are similar as well.  Cats have a temporal, occipital, frontal and parietal lobe in their brains, just as we do.  Additionally, cat brains also contain gray and white matter and the connections within their brains seem to mirror those of humans.

We also know that cats’ brains release neurotransmitters in a similar pattern to that of humans when confronted with information from their five senses.  Cats also have a short-term and long-term memory, and are able to easily recall information from up to 16 hours in the past.  Researchers are even studying cats’ Brain structures and neurotransmitters that regulate aggression to learn more about the implications for human aggression.

Recently through MRI research doctors have discovered that dogs and humans both house impulse control in the same area of the brain. Both human and dog brains by the prefrontal lobes, but in dogs this area is much smaller relative to brain size.  There is an actual link between the level of self-control a dog has and the behavior they display. Dogs who have more brain activity in their frontal lobes, tend to have more self-control and are better able to control their behaviors, reactions, and responses to stimuli in their environment.

dog brain impulse control_MRI
Brain region in dog prefrontal cortex for impulse control.

The Workings of the Inner Clockwork

All mammals (including humans) share neuroanatomical structures: The amygdala and hippocampus and neurochemical pathways in the limbic system that are important for feelings.  Let’s look at two areas of the brain to better understand the commonalities of the inner clockwork:

  • The Amygdala: The “Emotion Processing Center”:  There are two almond-shaped areas in the human brain that control emotional responses. The most common function of the amygdalae involves synthesizing fear responses from the environment. Animals also have amygdalae that initiate emotional responses such as fear.

 

  • The Hippocampus:  Where Memories Trigger Emotions: The hippocampus is the area in the brain where long-term memories are stored.  The hippocampus feeds directly to the amygdala.  Scientists believe that this is why a flood of strong emotions often follows after we recall a vivid memory.

Our companion animals also have a hippocampus.  If your pet had a fearful experience before, and the sight of something reminds her of that situation, the information from her sensory cortex triggers the memory in her hippocampus, which communicates with her amygdala, which then floods her with fear.princess Amidala_fear_cats_dogs_pet brains

They have found that with dogs who are experiencing the emotion of anger, the amygdala and hippocampus play key roles. When these systems become overactive, they cause the amygdala pathway to bypass the cortex entirely.  This results in an animal who will literally react without thinking.  Ahem, Hocus Pocus and King Albert can both attest to this.  And I know of a cockatoo who lives in this state during the peak hormonal months!

But don’t we all have the ability to react this way at some point in our lives?  I find it fascinating that our animal companions have this hard-wiring as well. 

animal brain
Primary amygdalar nuclei and basic circuit connections across species.

 


Emotions and the Autonomic Nervous System At Work

When an animal looks at the world, he or she is confronted with an overwhelming amount of sensory information—sights, sounds, smells, and so on.  After being processed in the brain’s sensory areas, the information is relayed to the amygdala, which acts as a portal to the emotion-regulating limbic system.  Using input from the individual’s stored knowledge, the amygdala determines how they should respond emotionally—for example, with fear (at the sight of a predator or stranger), in affection or love (at the sight of their beloved person walking in the door) or indifference (when facing something trivial).

Messages cascade from the amygdala to the rest of the limbic system and eventually reach the autonomic nervous system, which prepares the body for action.  If the animal is confronting a threat, her heart rate will rise.  Her body might sweat in some areas to dissipate the heat from muscular exertion.  The autonomic arousal in turn, feeds back into the brain, amplifying the emotional response.  Over time, the amygdala creates a salience landscape, a map that details the emotional significance of everything in the individual’s environment.

This internal mind map is a reminder of how to stay safe and alive.

When a threat is perceived, the body’s brilliant sympathetic nervous system kicks into high gear. The body then releases hormones that are responsible for either Fight or Flight. The hormones are adrenaline, cortisol, and norepinephrine. These hormones serve a very important purpose: They increase chances of survival.

“Fight or flight is a body’s primal response to anything one perceives a threat, hazard or danger; it is an immediate release of hormones to pump up our body to fight or run from a threat, whether that threat is perceived or real.”

fofbraindiag


Fear Digs In Deep.

There are some fascinating facts when it comes to the subject of fear. We now know that negative experiences effect the brain more deeply than positive experiences.  Fear sinks in deep.  And it holds on tight.  Once a learner (us or an animal) learns that something is scary, should be avoided, or becomes a trigger, the negative effects can be long lasting and hard-wired in the brain.

Remember when that creep who wore a clown costume to your friend’s birthday party when you were a kid?  Or what about that roach that crawled on you once while you were sleeping as a child?  How do you feel about roaches and clowns today?  It just takes one negative experience and that fear sticks to our minds like super glue.

Animals are not unlike us when it comes to how fear can set in and grab a tight hold in their minds.


Fear from Watching

Did you know that both people and pets can learn to be fearful of something, someone, or somewhere just by watching another animal or person?  The amygdala plays a critical part in the physical expression of a fear response in humans as well as animals.  Scientists have shown that the amygdala responds when a person or animal exhibits fear through observing someone else experiencing a fearful experience. This means that the amygdala is involved in learning to fear something even without directly experiencing the aversive event. Animals can merely observe something fearful and learn to be afraid of that person, place, or event!

Knox In His Box


The Scent of Fear

You know that phrase, “I can smell fear a mile away!”, or “They can smell your fear.”?  Well, it turns out there is some truth to that.  Researches in 2014 discovered that young animals have the ability to learn fear in the first days of life. Just by smelling the odor of their distressed mother.  And this doesn’t pertain to just “natural” fears; If a mother experienced something before pregnancy that made her fear something specific, her offspring will quickly learn to fear it too. How? Through her odor when she feels fear.

When the odor of the frightened rat mother was piped in to a chamber where her offspring were located and the juvenile rats were exposed to peppermint smell, they developed a fear of the scent of peppermint. Their blood cortisol levels rose when they smelled it! I mean, come on! How incredible is that?!

“During the early days of an infant rat’s life, they are immune to learning information about environmental dangers. But if their mother is the source of threat information, we have shown they can learn from her and produce lasting memories,” says Jacek Debiec, M.D., Ph.D., the U-M psychiatrist and neuroscientist who led the research.

“Our research demonstrates that infants can learn from maternal expression of fear, very early in life,” he adds. “Before they can even make their own experiences, they basically acquire their mothers’ experiences. Most importantly, these maternally-transmitted memories are long-lived, whereas other types of infant learning, if not repeated, rapidly perish.”

fear learned

Credit: Image courtesy of University of Michigan Health System

But wait. There’s more.  The scientists exposed the rat pups of both groups of mothers to the peppermint smell, under many different conditions with and without their mothers present.  Fear still occurred.

Using special brain imaging, studies of genetic activity in individual brain cells, and cortisol in the rat’s blood, they focused on the lateral amygdala as the key location for learning fears. Note: Later in life this area is responsible for detecting and planning a response to threats; that’s why it would also be the “hub” for learning new fears.

“But the fact that these fears could be learned in a way that lasted during a time when the baby rat’s ability to learn any fears directly was naturally suppressed, is what makes the new findings so interesting”, says the lead scientist, Debiec.

Their research even showed that the newborns could learn their mothers’ fears even when the mothers weren’t present.  Merely the scent of their mother reacting to the peppermint odor she feared was enough to make them fear the same thing.


Fear In Pheromones

Fear can be passed through scent glands.  Not only can pheromones be used to scent mark, attract mates, claim territory, find prey, and identify other animals, but they can be used as alarms.  Our dogs and cats can smell when fear is present in these glands.  I refer to these as FEAR-amones When they smell fear, they instinctively know to Get The Heck Out of Dodge.

sniffing-butt
Butt Sniffing : Think of this behavior as “speaking with chemicals”. It’s how dogs learn about another dog’s diet, gender, and even their emotional state!

 

Our Similar Structures

In An Odyssey with Animals: A Veterinarian’s Reflections on the Animal Rights & Welfare Debate Adrian Morrison provides a great description of just how mammalian and animal-like we humans are. As Morrison explains, we share common brain structures with other mammals:

My cat, Buster, and I both flinch and yowl or curse at a sudden painful stimulus, and our legs both jerk in response to a tap on the patellar tendon of the knee. The spinal organization of the neurons responsible for these activities is the same in cats as it is in humans.

Moving forward into the lowest part of the brain, in both Buster and me the same neurons control basic bodily functions, such as regulation of breathing, heart rate, and vomiting. Farther forward reside the nerve cells that regulate the behaviors of sleep and wakefulness, which are identical in humans and other mammals, and where dysfunction results in similar problems, such as narcolepsy … and REM sleep behavior disorder. In this brain region in all mammals are found the neurons containing the neurotransmitter dopamine, which degenerate in Parkinson’s disease.

At the base of the cerebral hemispheres is the almond-shaped amygdala, where mechanisms leading to fear and anxiety in people and animals operate. Monkeys and rats have contributed much to our understanding of the amygdala. The overlying cerebral cortex is where all of us mammals analyze the sensations coming from the skin, muscles and joints via the spinal cord, or eyes and ears in the cases of vision and hearing.

Where we depart from our animal brethren is in the great development of the front part of our cerebral cortex, the frontal lobes, and the greater proportion of cerebral tissue, called association areas, which integrate the information obtained from the regions that directly receive sensory information. These latter regions are called the primary sensory and motor areas because they receive simple, pure sensations and direct the movement of the body. It is within the frontal lobes that we humans mull over the past, prepare for the future, and reflect on its implications. Animals do not have this last capability in particular, as far as we can discern. Animals prepare for the future in a limited, instinct-driven way: Think of squirrels gathering and burying nuts for the winter. …

His last three sentences get right to the point of why I am sharing with you:  If we have the ability to plan, predict, and prepare, and our pets are instinctively coping, adjusting, and surviving this rollercoaster (we put them on), then we have a lot of work to do as their guardians.

If fear is sticky and hard to remove, then as animal guardians we need to know how fear sets in, how we can minimize or prevent it, and how to effectively remove it.  We have serious business at hand if we want them to live in our human world with minimal stress and fear, and with a maximum sense of security and safety.  If we want them to thrive, rather than merely survive, then we need to get to work.


Emotions Matter. 

The willingness to recognize that animals have emotions is key.  Their feelings matter, their fear is real to them.  Animals are sentient beings who experience the lows and highs of their live with us. We must respect this.

To continue with the status quo, because that’s what as always been done isn’t enough anymore. Now that we know more, we do more. Now that we know better, we must do better. For them. For us. For all species.

All that we once believed about animals has changed, and so should our relationships with the animals we live with, care, for and are stewards for.  When it comes to what we can and cannot do for animals, it is their capacity to feel, experience complex emotions that can be a catalyst for how we change the way we view them, and how we act on their behalf.


“Emotions are the gifts of our ancestors. We have them, and so do other
animals. We must never forget that”. ― Marc Bekoff, The Emotional Lives of Animals: A Leading Scientist Explores Animal Joy, Sorrow, and Empathy – and Why They Matter




My next post in this “Fear Series” will address both the causes and effects of of emotional and environmental stress on our pets, so stay tuned!

And the last post in this Fear Series will be chocked full of fun tips and techniques that you can implement to help your pets reduce their fears and live a fearless life!

Until then, I am going to plan, prepare, and be proactive about our upcoming Big Move with our animal companions!

All my love to you and yours.

-Amy & The Critter Krewe

 

Do you practice Anthropomorphism or Anthropodenial?

Inky the ocotpus
Anthropomorphism In the News: Inky the Octopus was recently compared to El Chapo and The Shawshank Redemption

Hello Again, Friends!

Full disclosure:  I am breaking my no-more-blog-posts-until-I-finish-writing-my-books-and-move-out-west rule.  Again.  But it’s so hard not to share things with you all, especially when I am passionate about something!

The topic on the table is something that every single person on this planet has done at least once in their life.  For many, it’s something we all do almost every day.  We anthropomorphize.


 

What is Aɴᴛʜʀᴏᴘᴏᴍᴏʀᴘʜɪsᴍ?

The big “A” word is the attribution of human traits, emotions, motivations, and intentions to non-human entities (objects, animals, natural phenomena).  Anthropomorphism is derived from its verb anthropomorphize, which is derived from the Greek word ánthrōpos, meaning “human”, and morphē , meaning “form”.  It was first attested in 1753, originally in reference to the heresy of applying a human form to the Christian God.

The practice of anthropomorphism is an innate tendency of human psychology.  We all do it.  We see it everywhere:  The Easter Bunny is an anthropomorphized rabbit.  Shel Silverstein’s book The Giving Tree anthropomorphizes the tree.   I named my first car.

It’s natural for us to want to relate to an animal, a plant, the weather, an object, the gods, goddesses, deities, angels, God, and anything else that seems to be outside of us.  We want to connect!   We want to create a connection that helps us to feel good.  We need connections that help us to feel safe and supported.  These connections can be powerful.  They can heal.  They help.  They can foster loving connections.

But this natural tendency can also be very unhelpful and sometimes detrimental.

 


Eye of the Beholder

Let’s set the plants, weather, and goddesses aside for now.  I am going to address our human view of animals’ behavior today.   How we perceive behavior is key.  When we don’t know how or why an animal is doing something, we tend to make it about us; we personalize it.  We place the meaning that a behavior has for us, onto the animal.  We anthropomorphize.

Let’s use two common examples of cat and dog behavior.

When we see a cat languidly rolling around on the floor, stretching and yawning in front of a child, or in front of another cat or dog, we see this behavior and think, “Awe, he’s so relaxed! He wants someone to love him!”  But what could actually be happening with that behavior is very clear in cat language: Calm Down, Dude.  It’s all good.  I am not a threat.  Be Cool.  Chillax man.   The cat is most likely offering a displacement behavior.  But from our human perspective, we see sleepiness and invitation.

When a dog interrupts play to sniff his or her uro-genital body parts, we most likely will be embarrassed or grossed out, then label the dog as “nasty”.  But the dog is far from nasty. The dog is offering a behavior that helps him/her to feel safe, or to feel better in that moment.  What is most likely happening is the dog is performing a displacement behavior that occurs in stressful situations.  But from our human perspective we have labeled the behavior and interpreted it much differently from the dog’s reality.

An animal’s particular behavior may seem to be “adorable”, “annoying”, “affectionate”, “rude”, “playful”, “disgusting”, “excited”, “happy”, “bored”, “mean”, “loving”, or “spiteful”, but there may be more than meets our human eye.  Behaviors have functions. They are not always what we perceive them to be.  The behavior that we have chosen to label as “excited” may actually be stress arousal.  The behavior  that we labeled “affectionate” may be used as a distance increasing behavior, or even scent marking for security.  Fearful, unsure, overwhelmed, and incapable could be easily labeled as “stubborn”.   What we perceive from our humanistic viewpoint is often way off the mark of what the animal is experiencing.


Pitfalls of the Big “A” Word

Misreading those two examples of behavior are not harmful in and of themselves. But some of the ways we misread, mislabel, and anthropomorphize animal behavior is harmful.  And sometimes it’s dangerous.

One pitfall of anthropomorphizing animal behavior can be harmful and unfair to our pets.  When we perceive our pet’s behavior from our human perspective (beliefs, intentions, and motivations), we miss the mark.  We are unable to see what’s really happening with the animal.   We see a behavior, assume it’s happening for one reason, then we get frustrated or upset with the animal.  All too often the result from these kinds of misunderstandings and misperceptions is detrimental to the animals: They are the ones who are punished. All because of the belief, projection, or label that the person has placed upon them.

But in the animal’s reality – from the animal’s perspective- the behavior was performed for an entirely different reason or need.  It was necessary.


 

Perception is consistent. What you see reflects your thinking.
And your thinking but reflects your choice of what you want to see. -ACIM


All Behavior Serves A Purpose.

Many pet owners truly believe that animal companion is behaving  out of spite or malice.  This is not true.  Animals do what works for them.  All behavior serves a purpose.  And that purpose is not to piss us off.  Period.

Pet owners are simply unaware that the stool they found on their antique rug was from a very painfully constipated cat who needs medical attention.  The dog who chewed their favorite shoes is suffering from anxiety.  The cat who howls all night is suffering from a variety of aging ailments.  The dog who barks at strangers is suffering from deep-rooted fear issues.

But what does the human see?  A mess. Embarrassing behavior. Disruptive behavior.  We miss the reality of what’s behind each of those behaviors:  A call for help.

We are the ones who can respond to their calls for assistance.

When we don’t know how or why an animal behavior problem exists, we tend to make it about us; we personalize it.  We make it into something that we can relate to.  We label the animal.  In the animal behavior world, this Anthropomorphism at its worst.


Hidden in the complex world of behavior science is a simple, often underutilized, fact that there is never just behavior.  Behavior never occurs in a vacuum or sprays out of an animal haphazardly like water from a leaky showerhead, independent of conditions.  Behavior always depends on the environment in some way.

– Susan Friedman. Ph.D.


Safety Compromised

Another pitfall of anthropomorphism is a lack of safety.  Take for instance the dog and baby or toddler who are “the best of friends” in the parent’s eyes.  But dog and baby are not the best of friends.  Dog is tolerating, and baby is on the borderline of dog’s boundary.   The parents want to create a connection between dog and baby that helps them to feel good, and maybe even to feel safe.  But the parents are unaware of the danger because they want so badly to  connect. They want their dog and baby to be best friends, so that is what they see.  But that is not the reality.

One example of this is “The Kiss To Dismiss.”  A parent might assume her dog loves her baby because the dog is often licking  the child’s face.  But this is often not so.  The behavior of face licking appears to be stemming from affection, but it certain circumstances, this behavior is intended to increase the distance between the licker and the lickee.  This is a very effective way for a dog to get someone who is pestering, threatening, or annoying them them to go away.    In dangerous situations like this, the unaware parents have placed their human attributes, human traits, emotions, motivations, and intentions onto the dog.  Anthropomorphism is at work here.


 

The Desire to Create a Connection

Do you see a theme here?   People want to connect with their pets.  They want their kids and other people to connect with their pets.  This makes people feel good.  People ultimately want to feel safe ans secure.  But when their pet’s behavior becomes unacceptable, or is labeled as something familiar and relate-able to the person (ex. spiteful, vengeful, malicious, rude, annoying, or aggressive) they lose trust in the animal and they don’t feel connected anymore. This loss of connection only widens the gap of communication and understanding.

 


Viral Vidz

When it comes to people, pets, and wild animals, anthropomorphism is usually at the root of many misperceptions and many mishaps.  People not only want to connect with their pets, but they also want to connect with animals in nature.  Part of the fun of indulging in a bit of anthropomorphizing of animals allows people to feel that animals are “just like us!”  Of course we want to connect to animals.   Connecting makes us feel good.  But our lack of awareness, combined with our desire to connect with species who should remain wild can cloud our judgement.

The video that went viral of the kids petting the Lemur is one example.  At first glance it looks adorable.  And the children even appear to be practicing the “Pause Pet Respect” Rule, which is pretty cool!   But, just like almost every animal video that goes viral, there is more going on than meets the eye.

Having worked with nonhuman primates in captivity, I have seen all too many of them who are abandoned and discarded as a result of the all too common must-have-it pet trade.  The desire to own an exotic animal, or even wanting to interact and connect with it can be a very slippery slope.  Unfortunately and all too often, lemurs like Sefo, and other exotic animals are taken from their natural habitat, sold or orphaned, and in return have poor quality lives; they are left alone in the unfamiliar and foreign human world, no longer able to survive in the lemur world.

What we are seeing in that “adorable” video is only a fraction of what’s the truth; Sefo was taken from his family and abandoned.  The ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta)  live in large family groups. These groups preen (groom) each other all day.  If Sefo was with his natural born family he would never consider letting a human approach him.

Everyone anthropomorphized what we saw in that video.  It’s a natural response for anyone, if we don’t know about healthy and normal primate behavior.  But that’s the point.  When we lack knowledge of an individual animal’s needs, when we don’t know the natural biology and behavior of an animal, the only perspective we have is from our limited human point of view.

 


And Then Came “Anthropodenial”…

So by now you are probably realizing that how you view your pets, wild animals, and even the weather is largely based around anthropomorphizing.  Attributing human characteristics to the weather and animals does create great material for humorous cartoons, but it’s not helpful if we want to understand why things happen they way they do, and why an animal behaves a certain way.

Placing human-like intentions on animals is often thought of as unscientific.  But there are some who argue that anthropomorphizing’s opposing position, “anthropodenial” — an unwillingness to recognize the human-like traits of animals — is too prevalent in our attitudes toward other species.

I have to ask: Could the absence of anthropomorphism be just as harmful?


Similar Species?

Through decades of analyzing animal-cognition research, animals have exhibited many of key behaviors that were once thought to distinguish humans from animals. Some of these abilities and behaviors include the ability to consider the past and the future, the ability to demonstrate empathy and self-awareness, and the awareness and ability to anticipate the motives of others.   Certain skills are considered key signs of higher mental abilities. These skills and abilities were once reserved for the human species, but now the animal kingdom shares many of these abilities!

These include, but are not limited to:

– a good memory

– ability to recall a specific past event

– a grasp of grammar and symbols

– self-awareness

– grieving

– understanding others’ motives

– imitating others

– being creative

– cheating

– lying


Animal cognition research humbles us.  We are not alone in our ability to invent or plan or to contemplate ourselves—or even to plot and lie. -“Are We Smart Enough to Know How Smart Animals Are?,” the Dutch primatologist Frans de Waal


Superior Species?

Over the years and through ingenious experiments, researchers have documented these skills in other non-human species, gradually eroding the deep-seeded belief that human beings are the superior species.  But there is research to show us otherwise.  Animals can be incredibly complex cognitive creatures. Animals’ abilities can and do rival ours.

Darwin even suggested that earthworms are cognitive beings!  Based on his close observations, earthworms have to make judgments about the kinds of leafy material they use to block their tunnels. Darwin did not expect to discover thinking invertebrates.  He shared that even a hint of earthworm intelligence “has surprised me more than anything else.”


Behind The Scenes of Each Species

I have found myself thinking similar surprising thoughts with the species I have worked and lived with over the years.  What I have learned from them has revolutionized the way I perceive animals and their behavior.   I may not understand the motivation behind an animal’s particular behavior, but I do understand and I do recognize and respect that every behavior serves a purpose for each animal.  Whether this behavior is a choice, a preference, or it serves a vital outcome, it must be respected.  Even if I am unable to perceive it at the time.

There is indeed, more happening “behind the scenes” in an animal’s world than we are aware.


If an octopus were to measure human intelligence, it might test us on the number of color patterns we can produce on the skin of our (pathetically few) appendages. Seeing us flunk the test, it might conclude that we are pretty stupid.

-The Soul of an Octopus” by naturalist Sy Montgomery


Not All Are Created Equal.

 

Thanks to science and observing behavior, we now know that animals do have abilities and skills that rival ours:

– Scrub jays are aware that other jays are thieves and that their stashed food can spoil

– Sheep can recognize faces

– Capuchin monkeys can experience envy

– Chimpanzees use a variety of tools to probe termite mounds and even use weapons to hunt small mammals

–  Crows can hold grudges against the biologists who capture and tag them

– Orcas use highly coordinated synchronized swimming to push seals off ice floes and into the water

– Sea lions can associate symbols (if A goes with B, and B goes with C, then A and C belong together as well)

– Dolphins can imitate human postures

– The archerfish, which stuns insects with a sudden blast of water, can learn how to aim its squirt simply by watching an experienced fish perform the task

– Chimpanzees, bonobos, and gorillas have been taught to use sign language and symbols

– Alex the parrot turned out to be a surprisingly amazing speaker

– Betsy the Bodercollie has a vocabulary of more than 300 words.

– Octopi can be shy, playful, cantankerous, or sneaky. They crave attention and play with toys.


Squirrels may fail at memory tasks that are important to humans, but, whereas we need apps to help us find our misplaced cell phones, they can remember where they’ve hidden tiny caches of nuts.-de Waal


Awareness, Knowledge, and Intelligence Coexisting

So, let’s say for a moment that some species of animals are capable of the full spectrum of intelligence and awareness of we humans.  Does that mean that our pets ARE doing things out of spite and malice?  Does this mean that our pets “should know better?” Does this mean that we shouldn’t use anthropomorphism?  Does this mean that all conscious beings are fully armed knowledge of absolutely everything in the universe?

My short answer to all of those questions is NO.

History has shown us that extreme anthropomorphizing of animals can lead to blaming animals for crimes and it can end terribly for the animal.  For example, in medieval and early modern Europe the animal’s mind was considered sophisticated enough that domesticated animals such as dogs and pigs could be put on trial for crimes.  Seriously, this happened.

As crazy as that case was, similar situations still happen today.  Pet owners tell me (all too often) why they blame their pet for “deliberately” behaving in ways that are “clearly meant to piss them off”.  They claim the animal “knows what she’s doing!” They are convinced that he is “doing it on purpose!”

Then they punish the animal.  Or they toss their family pet out like the trash.


Of course animals are behaving in ways that serve their needs.  They are not mindless creatures.  They are sentient beings who are trying to live in our human world the best way they know how.  But the animals with whom we share a home are not doing things for the reasons that we humans might be doing them.

Our pets are not being spiteful, vengeful, or malicious. They are behaving in ways that help them to coexist in our human world.  They are behaving in ways that help them to feel better. They are behaving in ways that help them to feel safe.  They are behaving in response to their internal and external environment!  Their behavior always serves a purpose.  That purpose is not to upset you.   I promise you this.


Your job as their guardian is to discover what they are trying to communicate.  Your duty is to learn why their behavior is happening.  Your job as their guardian is to learn their language.  It’s not enough to love, shelter, and feed them.  We have to learn to communicate clearly.  We must set aside our human perceptions and limited beliefs.  And we must learn as much as we can.

Our duty as an animal guardian is to become fluent in their needs, their biology, their health, history, and their species-specific language.  We need to know about each species’ natural behaviors!   And if you don’t know them, learn them.  Read about dog or cat behavior. Read up on the particular species of lizard or parrot that you have.  Read about the requirements of rats.  Know what your kid’s guinea pig needs.  Read about the red flags to be aware of in cat behavior and health.  Know what your cat needs to thrive!  Learn what dogs need to feel safe and secure in our human world.  Know what your dog needs to feel safe and connected.

Our animal companions want to connect with us, but it may not be in the way that we know how to, or how we prefer to connect.  Each animal is an individual.  And each species has their unique needs.  Our pets want to feel safe.    They need to be supported in their environment.  They want to thrive.  They are no different from us when it comes to wanting their individual needs to be met.  And they will do what they can to ensure all of this.  This theme is one that connects us all.   Animals know what they need.  They feel.  They respond to their world. They behave in ways that work for them.

The question is I feel we need to ask ourselves is:  How am I viewing all of this from my human perspective?


“It’s easy to project our own feelings onto animals—and that’s a mistake, but it’s a worse mistake to think that we are up on some kind of pedestal and that animals can’t also think, feel, and know.” – naturalist, Sy Montgomery 

 


Recommended Reading:

Creating Calm After the Chaos

Martin Family Halloween 2015
Scary Scarecrow and his friendly Crow
Now that the tricks and treats of Halloween and Samhain are coming to a close, it’s easy to become complacent as we wind down, but be aware: Your animal companions might still be wound up!  The endless sights, sounds, and stressors of Halloween might have deeply affected your animal companions.
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“Oh the crazy things my humans do …” – King Albert the Grey could do without the shenanigans of Halloween

Hocus Pocus and the Kitty Boyz did quite well during the pre and post Halloween festivities because we set everyone up for success, but that doesn’t necessarily mean everyone is Cool and The Gang afterward.  The day after a cacophony of commotion is often when families observe their pets becoming irritable and reactive.  We refer to this as trigger stacking.

Trigger stacking is how stress hormones can create a cluster effect of reactive behavior.  This kind of behavior is also seen in humans; think about when you have lost your temper after one stressful thing after another happens.  When an individual is pushed over their threshold, we see reactivity.  A ‘threshold’ is the point at which one reacts.  They quickly switch from an operant-thinking-mode to a non-thinking-survival-mode.

When the non-thinking-survival-mode kicks in the individual will either fight, flight (flee), fiddle, or freeze.  Below are The 4 F’s –  4 common behavior patterns that animals (and people) will do when afraid or feeling threatened:

  1. Flight
  2. Fight
  3. Freeze
  4. Fiddle About

Stress is both a physical and mental problem.

Stressful events affect all living beings, even on the cellular level.  And be aware: these stress hormones don’t just disappear once the stressful event is over.  The stress hormones can last for days, and even weeks with some individuals.

When conditions in the environment continue to stack up, and when multiple triggers (stressors unique to the individual animal) happen close together, or at the same time, they can have a cumulative harmful effect on the animal.  These stress hormones cause the animal to behave in a way that he/she normally would not.

Over the years we have observed each animal in our home respond with a different type of reactivity to their individual perceived threats.  The dog has been known to lunge and bark, freeze and growl, or retreat.  Her response depended on what she felt threatened by, and by her individual stress/hormone levels at that moment.  Each of the cats has their own individual response, depending on the trigger at the time, and their individual stress hormone levels. You might recall one of your animals behaving this way when they are stressed. You might even recall doing this yourself!

Cortisol is an adrenal hormone with a great number of effects on the body.  The level goes up or down quickly in response to stress.

Pet owners will often see this kind of reactivity when multiple stimuli occur in a short period of time (example: Halloween!)    It’s important to know that we don’t get to decide what’s stressful for the animal; these stimuli are anything that the individual animal is sensitive to.  A reactive animal can be sensitive to dogs, cats, people, sounds, objects, and/or their environment.  This sensitivity can be displayed by various types of reactive behavior such as running, hiding, freezing, growling, hissing, air snapping, biting, and guarding resources such as food, bedding, spaces, people, etc.

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Often during holidays and festive times pets can be under rested. Be sure to give them ample down time for rest. This can reduce their stress levels and reduce reactivity.

365 days a year we do our best to help every animal in our home to feel safe and secure. We continue to counter condition each animal to their individual perceived threats, and we strive to set them all up for success.  We use tools and techniques to ensure their perceived threat level is at zero.  But these are only pieces of the peaceful puzzle.

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King Albert and Beaux are sharing warm sunny spot, enjoying the peace

Reducing Stress Levels by Creating “Down Time”

How do you feel when you are tired and irritable after a long stressful day?  Our animal companions feel this and more when they are forced to participate, or even observe our human shenanigans.  Just watching and listening to so many strange sights and sounds can greatly increase their stress hormone levels!  But we can help them recover by giving them a “cortisol vacation.”   One of the most loving and helpful things we can do as animal guardians is offer all of the animals in our home plenty of safe, quiet places of refuge, especially after busy weekends such as this one.  We can create plenty of “pet down time.”  We can do this by encouraging them to take naps, get plenty of deep sleep, and lots of rest.  We can create a peaceful, calm environment.  Think of ways that you can create peaceful personal retreats for every living being in your home, including yourself!

Knox and I are good at encouraging one another to chillax.
Knox and I are good at encouraging one another to chillax.

Boundaries, Please. 

Creating safe boundaries is an essential key to creating peace and harmony in your home, especially after stressful festivities.  If you have children, guide them by showing them how to to respect the animal’s space or enclosure.  Teach them to be mindful and respectful of each individual animal’s tolerance for noise and commotion.  Ensure that the pets have their own safe bubble where they are free from being “loved on” (AKA being pestered).  If you have family or friends visiting, remind them to give the animals space.  If the animals choose to be around your guests, remember that the dog or cat may be excited to see newcomers, but in the next instant they very well could be more protective of things they consider “high value” such as bedding, treats, their people, and their food. Remember those stress hormones are in their system!  Also, if the animals in your home are not the best of buds, and they’re merely coexisting with one another, creating safe spaces for each animal and managing your home environment carefully is imperative.  Give everyone ample safe space!

Being aware of each animal’s individual threshold, and their need for safe, quiet refuge after any kind of commotion is how we become conscious companions for the animals with which we share a home.

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Hocus Pocus tucked in and sleeping soundly after the Halloween festivities.

Was your family prepared for the festivities this year? How did your animal companions do during the commotion? Are you all having a relaxed Sunday together? How do you help your animals and yourself decompress after big events?

Blessings of peace to you and yours!

Doin’ The Displacement

“Whenever you are examining someone else, you are bound to learn many interesting things of which you were not previously aware.” ―Lemony Snicket

behavior

Do you have a long list of things to do, but even more reasons not to do them?

I do.  We all do.

We have lists of must-do today, gotta-do this week, have-to-do this month, and so on.  They’re things we know we should do, but instead we check Facebook, read the newspaper, watch T.V., garden, organize the office or garage, or do something else that is completely unrelated to The List that we are wanting to avoid.   When humans do this kind of avoidant behavior we call it ‘procrastinating’, but when other species of animals do it, it’s referred to as displacement behavior.

To-Dos-List
I wish my To Do list looked like this.

What Is Displacement Behavior? 

Rather than try and explain it myself, here are a few definitions of displacement behavior:

In biology and psychology, it’s something that a person or animal does that has no obvious connection with the situation which they are in and that is the result of being confused about what to do.

Displacement behavior usually occurs when an animal is torn between two conflicting drives, such as fear and aggression. Displacement activities often consist of comfort movements, such as grooming, scratching, drinking, or eating.

Displacement Activity defined:

1. (Psychology)  behavior that occurs typically when there is a conflict between motives and that has no relevance to either motive, e.g. head scratching
2. (Zoology) zoology the substitution of a pattern of animal behavior that is different from behavior relevant to the situation, e.g. preening at an apparently inappropriate time

Simply put, it’s a normal behavior that’s displayed out of context.

Displacement behavior is usually seen when an animal has a conflict between two drives: the desire to approach an object, while at the same time being fearful of that object.  Displacement behaviors are a way of coping with the present environment.

In social situations, scientists also refer to these kinds of behaviors in humans as displacement behaviors.  You might recognize these commonly seen behaviors when you’re out at a bar or restaurant where couples are gathered.  Men often scratch at, or touch their face.  Women will fiddle with their hair, tug at their purse, or tap their shoe.  I call it fiddling and flirting!  Scientists have even found that these behaviors represent an important strategy for coping with stressful situations, particularly for men. 

Body-Language--Men-Flirting-8
Male displacement behavior when flirting

Mating and Conflict in Many Species

Humans are not the only species who display a variety of displacement behaviors in a myriad of environments to cope with stress and frustration.  There are many examples of displacement activities in the animal kingdom.  They are known to occur in a wide range of species from dolphins to dogs.  Below is a description of the reactions of two herring gulls contending for nesting territories on a sand dune:

If both the birds are standing near the edges of their territories so that in each the urge to drive off the intruder is matched by the urge to retire into the heart of the territory, they may suddenly leave their confrontation for a few moments and pull with their beaks at grass stems.  

Tinbergen found that this was really part of the pattern of nest-building; and it appeared that when the drive to defend the nesting territory was frustrated by an opposing drive, part of the pent-up “energy” splashed over, so to speak, in isolated actions which were part of the sequence normally expressing quite a different drive, that of building the nest.

Another interesting point is that some of these activities, especially those which arise in mating encounters, have become transformed into signals which convey the frame of mind of one individual to another of the same species.

Whether or not this adaptation occurs, the essential characteristics of displacement activity are frustration of one basic drive and the inconsequential performance of fragmentary activities normally part of behavior expressing another.

What the scientist is describing are displacement behaviors. These behaviors are allowing the gulls to avoid conflict.  They are a form of clear communication within their species, and the behaviors work for the gulls. Our companion animals are doing this all the time with us, and others at home, but we fail to recognize it.


Fidos, Felines, and Feathered Ones

Gulls are not unlike our pets at home.  If we look closely enough we will see similar behavior in our animal companions!  For example, a dog may have the desire to bark, bite, or walk away from another dog, but instead she scratches herself (when she’s not actually itchy).  During conflict, a cat who’s being harassed may be unsure whether to run from her attacker, or stand her ground and fight.  So instead of doing either behavior, the threatened cat displays a third, unrelated behavior; grooming.  Self grooming is a normal behavior that cats find calming and reassuring. But in this situation, it’s a displacement behavior!

displacement behavior cats
Grooming can be a displacement behavior.

“Some dogs will interrupt play, or other types of interactions with humans or other dogs, to take a quick ‘inventory’ of their own uro-genital body parts. This is a form of displacement behavior that appears most in stressful situations.” – Handelman, Barbara, Canine Behavior

Other common examples of displacement behavior in cats and dogs:

  • yawning when not sleepy
  • grooming out of context
  • using the scratching post after a stressful encounter
  • shaking off when not wet
  • stretching deeply
  • Scent marking with their face
scratching post cats displacement behavior
Have you seen your cat suddenly run over to use his scratching post? What happened right before he did that?

“If an animal (or bird, or fish) is stimulated to express a basic drive but the action is frustrated, the drive may find an outlet by inducing fragments of the pattern of behavior properly belonging to another drive. This is known as displacement activity.” -Thus, Tinbergen

parrot behavior
Beak wiping and scratching are common parrot displacement behaviors you will see when they are feeling conflicted.

Instead of licking our genitals or racing over to the scratching post, humans find other calming (and much more appropriate) reassuring activities to keep us busy, comfortable, and feeling secure.  In fact, I am doing a displacement behavior right now: Instead of facing my Must Do List, I am writing this blog to you.

Displacement behavior is the animal equivalent of nail-biting. It’s a behavior which helps to relieve stress or deflect trouble, without dealing with it directly.
Scratching can often be a dispacement behavior during training sessions and when other dogs or kids are getting too rowdy.

Displacement behavior is the animal equivalent of nail-biting. It’s a specific behavior that helps to relieve stress, or to deflect conflict, without having to deal with it directly.


How do you know if it’s a displacement behavior?

—-> We need to look at the FULL picture. We need to ask, “What’s happening in the environment at that moment?”

The reason these behaviors are called “displacement” behaviors is because they happen out of context.  For example, if you and your dog head into the veterinarian’s office and your allergy-free dog begins scratching herself all of a sudden, then paces in circles while in the lobby with you, and then suddenly she “shakes off” (when she is dry), your dog is displaying displacement behaviors.  Then this is your dog’s way of calming her nervous system, lowering her stress, and dealing with the environment she feels is threatening.


Displacement In Action!

The video below shows a number of displacement behaviors in dogs.  See how many you recognize.  Can you determine what’s causing the dogs to be conflicted/anxious?


The dog wants to do something, but he is suppressing the urge to do it. He displaces the suppressed behavior with something else such as a lick or a yawn. For example, you are getting ready to go out and the dog hopes to go too. He is not sure what will happen next. He wants to jump on you or run out the door, but instead he yawns. The uncertainty of the situation causes conflict for the dog and the displacement behaviors are a manifestation of that conflict. The dog may want to bite a child who takes his bone, but instead he bites furiously at his own foot. – Doggone Safe


Below is a video of an adult cat displaying Displacement Behaviors to reduce the energy and anxiety of a juvenile cat. The Displacement behaviour you will see is grooming, yawning, rolling, and averting gaze.


Cats and dogs aren’t the only companion animals who show displacement behaviors! Rabbits, rats, ferrets, horses, pigs, and parrots do too!  Check out the licking, yawning, sniffing, grooming, foot flicking, tail swishing, digging, scratching and more in this video!


Why do we need to be aware of these behaviors? 

These behaviors indicate that the animal is feeling conflicted.  Inner conflict that’s not positively addressed can lead to more severe anxiety, fears, and prolonged stress. These can in turn affect an animal’s mental and physical well being, which can lead to medical and behavioral issues. And frankly, if you are living or working with an animal, you should be FLUENT in their language.

What should you do?
If your animal companion is doing any of these behaviors around children, dogs, cats, or other pets in the home (or elsewhere), turn the conflict into fun, or at the very least, help the animal to feel calm, relaxed, and safe.  Help them walk away from what’s stressing them, or let them know they are safe by removing the perceived threat.  If the situation is getting tense with another animal or child, intervene swiftly but positively. Then offer everyone something positive and productive to focus on.  Remember to keep it upbeat and easy!  We don’t want to add more stress to the situation.

funny-awkward-cats-
Putting this random image in here is another form of displacement behavior for me; I would rather laugh at this kind of silliness instead of proof reading this blog post.

Do you notice displacement behaviors in the animals at your work or home? What is the most common one that you see?I would love to hear from you. Please share below!


Recommended Reading

Displacement, Avoidance, and Other Stress Signals

CANINE BODY LANGUAGE

Calming Signals of Dogs

WHAT IS MY CAT SAYING? Feline Communication

Parrots and Behaviors

Try Giving Instead of Taking

There is a very common myth that taking an animal’s food or toys away while they are enjoying them, will teach the animal to allow anyone to come up and take things from them.  This “technique” at best, is usually viewed as an annoyance to the animal, but at worst it can trigger or create defensive behaviors such as resource guarding, growling, and even biting.

Instead of taking food or toys away from an animal, offer Good Things to whatever they are enjoying!

For example, calmly approach a relaxed pet (cat, bird, dog, pig, etc.) when they are eating their food, or chewing on a toy, and add another yummy piece of food, or another irresistible toy to his/her bowl or play area, then walk away.

This teaches your animal companion that approaching humans or brief touches that happen while they are enjoying their valued resource are Good Things!  This technique helps to prevent resource guarding and other defensive or aggressive behaviors. It also helps to build confidence and trust with you, other people, and other pets!

You can see an example of how to do this here:

For it is in giving that we receive. ― Francis of Assisi


Recommended Reading: Myths, Truths, and Tips about Resource Guarding

Related VIDEOS:

Dog Science Worth Sharing!

Studying animal personality can tell us more about both animals AND humans. ~ Sam Gosling

Science is about critical thinking not facts – Prescott Breeden

I love getting things for free, and I love convenience, but when fun and enlightening education is added to the mix, I am a very happy woman!  I haven’t written in a while due to a number of life’s callings, but I took a break to share this noteworthy news with you all today.  Rarely can anyone, anywhere in the world, join a conference for free from your home, with no strings attached, but YOU CAN!

This year the Society for the Promotion of Applied Research in Canine Science (SPARCS) conference is free to everyone all around the world!  They began their lively discussions and presentations on Friday and they run through today -all day! The daily presentation themes include:

  • Aggression and Conflict
  • Personality and Temperament
  • Science in Training

You have the opportunity to learn from some of the best minds in Canine Science from the comforts of your own home! Check out the amazing speakers here and see the full schedule here. You can see the daily TOPICS here!

There’s one more day left to learn from some of the greatest minds in canine science! Some of today’s topics include:

–> “Coyotes, Koalas, and Kangaroos: What the behavior of other animals can teach you about your dog”

–> “How owner personality influences the behavior of dogs”

 

Click here to tune in and learn more about your canine companion!


Here are just a few fascinating and enlightening quotes from today’s and yesterday’s speakers:

“Even the most complex behavior can be governed by some simple rules.” -Prescott Breeden

“Predatory behavior is NOT aggression” – Kathryn Lord

“We talk about aggression as if it’s a bad thing; natural selection supports some forms of aggression.” – Coppinger

“Taking breaks in play: allows dogs to avoid too much arousal.” – Patricia McConnell

“Results from C-BARQ suggest an inverse relationship between dog size and fear of  other dogs and strangers.” – James Serpel

“Miscommunication in play leads to conflict.” – Kathryn Lord

“One cannot generalize across the board about aggression. There are breed differences AND individual differences.” ~ James Serpell

“Breed Specific Legislation NOT JUSTIFIED” -James Serpel

“Humans unintentionally causing conflict for dogs ~
Dogs ‘appear in conflict’ and owners runs in and grabs by collar”

“A predator has to have built-in knowledge of where to bite to kill prey. Genes!” – Ray Coppinger

“Spaying & neutering effect on aggression in dogs? CBARQ data says yes, but very breed specific.”

“Dogs bark because they are conflicted. Some dogs bark MORE because they are more conflicted.” – Kathryn Lord

“Humans are selecting against owner-directed aggression all the time.” James Serpell

“Viruses that affect DNA can cause behavioral changes in mice”. – Prescott Breeden

“In dogs, conscientiousness and openness tend to meld together.” – Sam Gosling

“It’s important to know WHY dogs are barking in order to avoid anthropomorphism.” – Kathryn Lord

“Across several studies, pet store dogs are more likely to be reported as showing aggression.” James Serpell

“You want a dog you can call a pet, so you’re gonna drug it all the time? Give me a break!” Ray Coppinger

“Personality descriptions can tell us just as much about the person describing the animal as the animal itself.” – Sam Gosling

“The [animal] shelter itself can be a major negative influence on the behavior of a dog.” – Kathryn Lord

“Rely on MULTIPLE assessments for success in evaluating shelter dogs.” – James Serpell

“Dog bite data is biased toward common breeds, large breeds, and serious types of aggression.” – James Serpell

“Words we use to describe behavior may or may not be useful, too broad or too narrow or not descriptive enough.” – Sam Gosling

“Motivation can be learned (conditioned), and learning is fuelled by motivation. Keyword: ANTICIPATION” – Simon Gadbois


TUNE IN NOW to hear them for yourself!

If you are reading this after the live conference is over, the videos will be available to SPARCS members.  You can  learn about how to become a SPARCS member here!

1-SPARCS-SocialMedia-Support-Join_7.16.13

“Bringing the world together in our love for dogs!” – SPARCS 2014

Holy Moly Hormones!

“Why is patience so important?”
“Because it makes us pay attention.” 
― Paulo Coelho

These are a few behaviors that parrot guardians often see during The Season of Hormones!

It’s that time of year again! … Spring is here. The hormones have kicked in. Get Ready.

Many of you know the scenario: One day your affectionate parrot is a content, happy member of your family, and the next minute he or she is acting like a psychotic monster attacking everyone and everything! Hormones are on the rise, feathers are flying, and beaks are gnashing!

These Jekyll and Hyde personality changes are often due to “mating” season (AKA Spring to us humans).  Bird hormones tend to kick into high gear as their bodies prepare for ‘breeding season’. Don’t be mad at your feathered friend. They can’t help it, and their behavior only serves a greater purpose for them in the wild: Hormones dictate breeding success in birds.

Some animals produce more offspring than others. Hormones like prolactin and corticosterone can exercise a crucial influence on the behaviour of birds in the breeding season and therefore on their reproductive success. ~ Princeton University researchers

In the world of birds, the arrival of Spring means one very important thing: it’s time to get their bird breeding on!  Mating is how their species survives!  So strap on your patience pants, and maybe a harness for yourself, because this is most likely going to be a bumpy ride!

For many parrot guardians this is a very trying time of year. Here’s are two things that you can do to get through this without losing your mind – or a finger: be patient and compassionate.  This is a difficult time for your feathered friend as well.  Their hormones are changing to prepare for breeding. This affects their bodies, and their moods. Remember how awful your hormonal years were?? These changes can make them more irritable. You can expect more screaming, biting, more destruction, and more unpredictable mood swings. Again, you must be patient; this won’t last forever.  It will get better if you know how to help them.

Read on to discover some of the common signs of hormonal behavior in birds, and how to help your feathered friend cope with these hormone surges, so you can have a safer, healthier home environment.

It’s very important to recognize the signs and symptoms of a hormonal parrot, so we don’t merely label them as “crazy” or “mean”. Remember that every behavior serves a purpose to that animal.  It’s up to us as their guardians to be the detective and help them cope in our human world.

What To Look For:

• Eye pinning (pupils dilating and constricting)
• Wing flapping
• Tail fanning
• Trembling, with wings dropped low in a ‘begging’ posture (he/she is asking you to feed him as a mate)
• Panting when touched outside of the head and neck area
• Regurgitating for you or for his/her toys
• Increased appetite
• Lifting the vent while cuddling (if female)
• Mounting your hand by gripping your thumb (if male)
• Head-bobbing, hopping/bouncing, or making ‘heart wings’ for you
• Plucking or barbering feathers
• Territoriality over the cage, room, you, or a family member
• Excess aggression; including biting, screaming, and beak-bashing

Hormones (triggered by weather changes, increased daylight hours and a variety of other factors) start coursing through the blood stream bringing about chemical changes in the body and some pretty odd behaviors.

Other companion Bird Hormone Surge signs to be aware of:

Note: Depending on the species, age, and individual animal, nesting behavior can last from a couple of weeks to a month or more.

 

If you are seeing any of these behaviors, read on to learn a few tips to help a hormonally charged bird:

  • Gently avoid encouraging amorous advances from your feathered friend.
  • Be more aware of your bird’s body language; aggression can be avoided if you are paying attention to their signals.

 

Please note: “Serious physical and psychological problems can develop if pet birds remain in reproductive hormone behavior for prolonged periods. Such birds are considered to be in chronic reproductive status (CRS), and owners should seek the assistance of their avian veterinarian and/or a parrot behavior consultant to help resolve this situation.”

 

fearless

Sited Sources:

http://www.birdchannel.com

 

Thank Them for Showing Up

bonding with your dog

He is your friend, your partner, your defender, your dog. You are his life, his love, his leader.  He will be yours, faithful and true, to the last beat of his heart.  You owe it to him to be worthy of such devotion. ~ Unknown Author

Last night while most of the world watched the Olympics, I was wide-eyed, giddy, and on the edge of my seat watching the Westminster’s Masters Agility Championship live from New York.  Yeah, I know, it sounds riveting. Let me explain.

For the first time in its 138-year history, the famous Westminster Kennel Club allowed mixed-breed dogs to compete in a brand new competition called the Masters Agility Championship. For nearly 140 years, the Westminster Kennel Club has closed its doors to mixed breeds, known as “All American dogs”, focusing only on the conformation, physical abilities, and skill of only purebred dogs.  This inclusion allowed dog guardians from all over the world to show that everyday dogs can go nose-to-nose with their purebred peers.

I, along with many others felt that this was a huge step in the right direction of celebrating and recognizing all dogs, regardless of their pedigree.  Many of these high-spirited, high energy dogs are all too often dropped off at shelters by people who just don’t know how to deal with their energy and enthusiasm. So it really was such a joy and pleasure to see the All American Dogs go paw to paw with the purebreds.

Reese, a four year young Papillon from North Carolina, is a great example of what this new sort of competition means. Reese was surrendered to a rescue organization as a puppy because his original owner thought he had too much energy. His new owner is an X-ray technician who doubles as Reese’s handler.  They found a way to channel his energy by working with a qualified trainer, and Reese now competes in trials about twice a month.  He even became a bit of a celebrity last week when The Charlotte Observer published an article about his appearance at Westminster.  Another “All American Dog” named Emma is one more example of an incredible but true, underdog success story. Emma went from doggie death row to Westminster row!  Emma was abandoned, found and taken to a 48 hour high-kill shelter, rescued, and then three years later, Emma was chosen to compete at Westminster!

As cool as all of that is, something else really moved me. Even with all the pressures of being at the very first Westminster agility championship, and being live on international television, the handlers (trainers of the dogs) praised the heck out of their dog at the end of each agility run, no matter how well or how poorly their dog did.  Even if the dog stopped on the course, refused an obstacle, or performed less than desirable in any way, the handler treated the dog as if they had won best in show. It moved me to tears to see that kind of love, loyalty, and support from a dog trainer toward their beloved canine companion while under such pressure.

Let’s back up here for a bit so you can really understand why this is So Huge, and such an act of love and devotion.  These expert handlers and dogs practice for hours on end, for weeks and months at a time to perfect these obstacles on the agility course.  Many have been practicing agility training for decades, and some for only a few years.  Regardless of how long they have been working together to master the obstacle course, they train day in and day out to get it right.  The handlers and dogs go through rigorous (but fun) training to get to where they are so they can compete with the best of the best at the Westminster Agility Trials.  About 225 dogs, including 15 mixed breeds, were entered in Saturday’s agility drills.  They are given a map of the course to review (the people, not the dogs) and then they are expected to perform at their very best, having never run on this course before.  Yesterday each dog and their handler took the ring twice for qualifying rounds, with the best performers moving to the championship round. The dogs, representing 63 breeds from 23 states, were randomly selected from a pool of 653 entrants. Eventually they are narrowed down to 50, and then as more are eliminated, the best of the best get their Game On.

Our dog, Hocus Pocus, and I are very new to the agility world. We started agility training in September of last year.  I had no idea the bond that it would create between us, how much we would both love doing it, how amazing of a team we were together, and how additive it is!  Once a week for an hour and a half we were both pushed to the max both physically and mentally. I always knew that training can be stressful for all animals, but during our agility training together is when I really started to understand and appreciate the phrase “learning can be very stressful” for you and the animal that you are training.

So when I watched the agility trails last night I was so amazed when I saw the love, pride, and joy in the faces of the handlers after the dogs finished the course, no matter how poorly or well they or their dogs did.  They weren’t frustrated or angry. They were genuinely proud of the dog and they celebrated their dog’s success of just showing up and trying their best!  They didn’t get mad or frustrated with themselves or the dog for making mistakes! They went with whatever happened, and not only accepted it, but also celebrated at the end, no matter what it meant! I was amazed at how genuinely happy they were and how much they lavished their dog with love and praise, even when the dog or the handler totally screwed up! It was a tough course and one that really challenged some of the best agility dogs in the world, but the dogs and trainers showed up and gave it 110 percent.

I could see this happening and I appreciated it because I knew the feeling. I knew what it was like to try so hard and want yourself and your dog to succeed. Every night that Hocus and I went to agility I was nervous. I wanted to have my timing right for her, because she is a wicked fast learner, so I knew that if I was tired or distracted, her results would suffer because of me.  Before we went into class I would affirm that I wasn’t going to forget the cues, and I was going to do it right this time, for her. But the most important thing that I would remember was to say to her, “No matter what happens tonight I am so proud of you. You make me so proud every day. I love you. Now let’s go have some fun.”

Last night while watching the Westminster Agility Championship I was so moved to see every one of the remaining competitors give their dog the same love and respect that I gave to Hocus before every practice session.  I really hadn’t expected to see that.at a world famous competetion.   I figured that if I could be stressed and nervous before agility practice with no one there, they had to be out of their minds stressed beyond belief!  I know that the handlers were stressed, anxious, and nervous. I know those dogs felt their anxiety, nervousness, and tension, but they ran the difficult and complicated course, accepted the mishaps and mistakes, and still celebrated their dog at the end. It was truly amazing.

This is what competition is all about. Showing up, having fun, accepting the results, and praising your partner!  It’s not about the outcome, the finish line, the well behaved moments, the perfect timing, the correct cues and behaviors. It’s about the connection you have together. It’s about them trying. It’s about you trying. It’s about knowing you can lose, but giving 100 percent anyway. It’s about the bond you are strengthening. It’s about just showing up.  That’s all that either of you have to do; just show up. Smile. Breathe. Just get out there. Have fun with your dog.  Because that’s all your dog wants from you. And thank them for just showing up.

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Purebred and mixed-breed dogs show off their grace and skills in the Westminster Kennel Club’s first agility competition.  Handlers raced against the clock while directing their dogs through a complicated obstacle course with tunnels, jumps, weave poles, teeter-totters, A-frames and dog walks.  Instead of being judged on appearance and temperament, they earn points for their speed, jumps, and turns through the obstacles.  

You can view some footage of the day trials in the video below. 

 

Note: This video was not footage of the final agility contestants. Video of the finals was on FOX Sports 1 last night. It was an incredible LIVE premiere of the Masters Agility Championship at Westminster in New York.  If you missed it, check your local listings as it’s scheduled to replay again a few times this week! It was amazing!

Agility, particularly is exciting for spectators and for the dogs themselves, as that it’s a race over a number of obstacles and it gets great fan support and, in fact, is the fastest growing area of the dog world in terms of events. ~ Sean McCarthy, President, Westminster Kennel Club

“You don’t have to spend thousands of dollars on a dog for it to surpass your wildest dreams.”

If you want to learn more about the Westminster Dog Agility Championship trials, you can:

  • Follow them on Facebook here
  • Visit their website here:
  • See pics on their Instagram page here.
Hocus Pocus and me at Agility Training here in NC
Hocus Pocus and me at agility training here in NC

Dogs are not our whole life, but they make our lives whole. ~Roger Caras