The old assumption that animals acted exclusively by instinct, while man had a monopoly of reason, is, we think, maintained by few people nowadays who have any knowledge at all about animals. We can only wonder that so absurd a theory could have been held for so long a time as it was, when on all sides the evidence if animals’ power of reasoning is crushing. ~Ernest Bell
I am beyond excited to share this post with you! Huge breakthroughs have been happening for tortoises and turtles behind the scenes for decades, but most of the world has no idea what we have accomplished and learned from these complicated reptiles. Thankfully, a new study has proven what reptile trainers, zoo, aquarium and nature center educators, and reptile enthusiasts all over the world already knew; turtles and tortoises are not simple, mindless creatures.
Thanks to scientists who are thinking outside the box, and who are willing to share their results, the world will finally know that turtles and tortoises are capable of decision making and complex cognitive behavior. Yes, you read that correctly; tortoises and turtles make deliberate decisions, and use complex thinking to solve problems, and to gain rewards for themselves.
The title of this post is actually true! Tortoises have officially entered the world of touch-screen technology! Scientists recently discovered that tortoises are capable of learning how to use an electronic device in exchange for strawberries! The tortoises not only mastered the task in exchange for strawberries, but the animals also transferred their knowledge to a real-life setting.
The Tortoise Test Subjects
The tortoises they chose as test subjects for this experiment were Red-footed tortoises. Like most turtles and tortoises, they are very inquisitive and very eager to eat tasty treats. “This makes them very good test subjects”, Anna Wilkinson, of the University of Lincoln, England explained.
These tortoises lack a hippocampus. This is an area of the brain associated with learning, memory, and spatial navigation. The researchers believe that red-footed tortoises may rely on an area in their brain called the medial cortex. This is the same area associated with complex cognitive behavior and decision making in humans.
Red-footed tortoises are inquisitive and eager to eat treats, making them good test subjects. ~Wilkinson
“Tortoises are perfect to study as they are considered largely unchanged from when they roamed the world millions of years ago. And this research is important so we can better understand the evolution of the brain and the evolution of cognition.”
Learning How Tortoises Learn
First the researchers needed to understand how tortoises learn, so they tested how the reptiles relied on cues to navigate the area. To do this, they gave the tortoises treats when the reptiles looked at, approached, and then pecked on the screen. All four red-footed tortoises learned how to use touch screens fairly quickly.
“It’s comparable to the speed with which the pigeons and rats do it. I’ve trained dogs to use a touch screen and I’d say the tortoises are faster.” ~ Wilkinson
Wilkinson explains that turtles’ and tortoises’ speedy learning is due to the fact that “tortoise hatchlings don’t receive parental care, so they have to learn how to make decisions about food and shelter for themselves from the moment they hatch.”
The Main Experiment
The tortoises attempted to bite a red triangle in the center of the touch screen. When two blue circles flashed, the tortoises had to consistently peck at either the circle on the right, or the one on the left to get a tasty strawberry.
The results: All four of the tortoises mastered the tortoise touch-screen task! However two of the tortoises eventually stopped cooperating; Wilkinson explains that it’s possibly because these two were too small to reach the screen. Two of the tortoises, Esme and Quinn, continued to try and applied their knowledge to a real-life situation.
You can watch part of the experiment below.
Tortoise With A Touchscreen Tests Testudine Perception Video
The video below is a test of spatial cognition. This Red-footed tortoise was presented with shapes in varying positions, and she was rewarded with strawberries when she touched the targets.
Learning Applied to Real Life
In the next part of the experiment, the remaining two tortoises applied their knowledge to a real-life situation. The researchers placed the tortoises in an arena with two blue, empty food bowls that were similar to the blue circles on the touch screen. The tortoises walked over to the bowl on the same side as the red circles that they were trained to bite at on the screen.
The researchers then trained the tortoises to go to the opposite blue bowl in the arena to see how flexible they were with learning. When they were reintroduced to the touch screens three months later, the tortoises immediately began biting at the same side of the screen as before.
“The big problem is how to ask all animals a question that they are equally capable of answering. The touchscreen is a brilliant solution as all animals can interact with it, whether it is with a paw, nose or beak. This allows us to compare the different cognitive capabilities.”
What Does This All Mean?
The experiment reinforces other findings that tortoises are intelligent creatures. ~Professor Vonk, psychology department, Oakland University, Michigan
These new findings will help researchers compare the perceptual and cognitive abilities of tortoises to other animals that can perform the same tasks.
“Their task was to simply remember where they had been rewarded, learning a simple response pattern on the touchscreen. They then transferred what they had learned from the touchscreen into a real-world situation. This tells us that when navigating in real space they do not rely on simple motor feedback but learn about the position of stimuli within an environment.” -Dr Wilkinson
“If you are taking on a reptile, you must consider their need for cognitive enrichment.” ~ Wilkinson
“Generally people see reptiles as inert, stupid and unresponsive. I would like people to see that there is something much more complex going on.” ~ Anna Wilkinson, senior lecturer of animal cognition at the University of Lincoln, England
This study was published in the July issue of the journal Behavioral Processes.
Story Source: Materials provided by University of Lincoln
Julia Mueller-Paul, Anna Wilkinson, Ulrike Aust, Michael Steurer, Geoffrey Hall, Ludwig Huber. Touchscreen performance and knowledge transfer in the red-footed tortoise (Chelonoidis carbonaria). Behavioural Processes, 2014; 106: 187 DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2014.06.003