Stimulate Them!

Animal enrichment promotes naturalistic behaviors that stimulate the mind and increases physical activity.  It reduces stress and therefore promotes overall health by increasing an animal’s perception of control over their environment and by occupying their time. 

An Amur tiger cub enjoying bubble enrichment at the zoo. Amur (Siberian) Tigers are critically endangered. Less than 40 exist in the wild. Zoo breeding programs are helping the species to survive.

While working for a decade as an Enrichment Coordinator for various animal sections at the Audubon Zoo, I learned that physical and mental stimulation is vital to every species on the plant.  Squid, poison dart frogs, mice, tortoises, spiders, jaguars, sheep, dogs, parrots, ferrets, anteaters, cats, and pigs all need daily mental and physical stimulation!  Think of any animal, and I assure you that it needs daily stimulation.

Life is very stale and very boring without enrichment.  Imagine sitting on the couch in your home. There are no windows. You cannot leave the house.  No one ever visits you.  You have no radio, T.V. iPhone, or internet.  You have to eat and drink the same thing every day.  What do you think would eventually happen to your mind and body after a day, then a week, then a month?  This kind of mental stagnation is incredibly harmful to all living creatures.  In fact, it’s downright deadly.

All animals need enrichment, which is a fairly simple but important concept.  Enrichment improves or enhances the environment for an individual animal and stimulates the animal to investigate and interact with their surroundings more.  At the Audubon Zoo, I would enrich an animal’s environment by making changes to structures in their enclosures, present novel objects and scents for them to investigate, change how we presented food to them, and much more.

We encouraged them to forage, hunt, and handle their food in ways that are natural to them in the wild. (The Shape of Enrichment has a great sample article of this kind of enrichment.)  These tools were used on a regular basis at our zoo to alleviate boredom.  Boredom often leads to frustration, and other unwanted behaviors.  Giving animals more choices prevents boredom!

 

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Offering an animal more CHOICES prevents boredom and other unwanted behaviors!

Coordinating Enrichment for Exotics

As an Enrichment Coordinator, it was my job to ensure that every animal in a particular section had species-appropriate enrichment provided for them every day.  This could be anything from planting geographically appropriate plant species to encourage a critically endangered female Blue Iguana to forage on her native country’s plants to prepare her body for breeding season, to providing a Boomer Ball for our Miniature Donkey in the Children’s Zoo to keep her from becoming bored and harassing the goats, sheep, or visitors!

 

The video below is an excellent example of how we could use a Boomer Ball in a captive zoo environment.  This demonstrates the fun and importance of mental and physical enrichment, with a focus on Choice, Change, and Complexity.

Otters Playing with Boomer Balls at the Philadelphia Zoo

Behavioral enrichment should be random, interesting and novel. The goals of enrichment are to offer a sense of control by allowing animals to make choices and to stimulate species-appropriate behaviors


What Captive Otters Can Teach Us About Our Pets

Right about now you might be asking, “So what does an otter playing with a ball, underwater, at a zoo, have to do with my pet at home?”  Well, that otter is a perfect example of  what I encourage all of my clients to do with their pets, in their homes, every day: mentally and physically challenge them!   Every one of you has the ability to have this much fun with your pets at home!  I am going to explain how you can do this, why enrichment is so important for your pets, and how it improves your life as well.


How Enrichment Helps

Environmental enrichment, when used properly, can positively address many behavioral issues. This can be anything from “rowdiness,” cognitive dysfunction, storm and noise phobias, separation anxiety, obsessive-compulsive behaviors, and behaviors that result from the all too common problem in homes: boredom and/or frustration.

In addition to treating behavioral disorders, environmental enrichment should be viewed as an essential part of providing an excellent quality of life for all pets due to its proven positive effect on the health and well-being of animal companions.


What is Enrichment?

Enrichment can be defined as:

A process for improving or enhancing animal environments and care within the context of their inhabitants’ behavioral biology and natural history.  It is a dynamic process in which changes to structures and husbandry practices are made with the goal of increasing behavioral choices available to animals and drawing out their species-appropriate behaviors and abilities, thus enhancing animal welfare .   (Association of  Zoos and Aquariums [AZA] Behavior Scientific Advisory Group 1999, excerpted from Disney’s Animal Programs).

Behavioral enrichment is defined as “the environmental enhancement of the lives of animals in a managed setting by providing them with mental and physical stimulation to increase natural and healthy behavior.”

Simply put, enrichment is “the act or process of increasing the intellectual or spiritual resources”.

More simply put:  Add a little creativity, fun, and stimulation to an animal’s life!

Environmental enrichment for pets (also called behavioral enrichment) is a means to enhance a companion animal’s surroundings. It serves to enhance their life through means in which the animal is presented with novelty in his/her environment. The animal is given opportunities to learn. And the animal is encouraged to engage in natural, instinctive, species-specific behaviors.


Why Enrichment Is Important

Enrichment is as integral to animal care as veterinary and nutrition programs. 

Behavioral enrichment and environmental enrichment are necessary components of life in captivity.  Enrichment improves the welfare of all animals.   All animals in captivity need environmental enrichment whether they live in a zoo, shelter, laboratory, sanctuary, or your home.  It’s one of the 3 Key Elements That My Work Is Based Upon.

Studies have shown that when animals are given an enriched, stimulating environment (a variety of things to do, smell, and explore) they live longer, are better adjusted, more relaxed, better able to develop problem-solving skills, and they remember what they learn.  This directly relates to your pets at home!  Bored animals are easily frustrated, and frustration can lead to destruction.  You can avoid boredom and destruction by enriching your pets!  Enrichment is one of the keys to enhancing your pet’s life.  It is also one of the easiest tools to implement on a daily basis.

Enrichment at Home Serves To:

  •        Curb boredom and restlessness of an animal
  •         Reduce frustration and destructive behaviors
  •         Increase an animal’s natural behaviors, and as result, increase their health and longevity
  •         Teach you new ways to engage and play with your animal companion

 

Types of Enrichment 

Enrichment is generally grouped into the following categories.  All of these can be used at home with your pets:

  • Food based
  • Sensory (touch, sight, smell, taste, and sound)
  • Novel objects
  • Social
  • Positive Training
  • Foraging
DIY pet-enrichment-puzzle-feeders_dog_cat_parrot_turtle
Food, sensory, novel objects, and foraging enrichment are all shown in this image of pets in homes. Can you identify each one?

The Key to Successful (and appropriate!) Enrichment 

As I mentioned earlier, enrichment is something that can, and should be, incorporated into your animal companion’s life every day.  The image above is a great example of how easy it is to do!  However, the key to successful (and appropriate) enrichment for an individual animal is doing a bit of research.  Your homework is to understand your pet’s natural history.  This means that you need to learn about the history of their species, or background and history of their breed.

For example, did you know?

  • The Italian Greyhound was bred to  hunt rabbits.
  • The Dachshund was used to hunt badgers.
  • The main reason cats were bred and kept around homes was originally for hunting vermin.
  • The Bengal cat breed originally came from crossing domestic cats with wild Asian leopard cats.
  • Although cats are carnivores, they still have an occasional craving for live green plants.

All of this matters!  

The breeding history and the natural history of animals affects our pet’s today – even if only on a small level at times.  Your domestic house cat still has a strong predatory instinct, so she needs to hunt every day.  Your cockatoo may live in a metal enclosure in your house, but he/she still has the innate need to chew, fly, and forage.  Your couch potato dog might have a lineage that was bred to swim and retrieve.  We must provide opportunities for animals to do things that are in their DNA.  We can provide simulated hunting, chewing, foraging, and seeking in our homes.  This is what enrichment provides.  It’s important that we take the time to put the pieces of their breed /species puzzle together.


 

Ask yourself:

  • What would my _____ be doing if they were living in the wild??
  • Are they nocturnal, crepuscular, or diurnal?
  • Do they like to climb, hide, or fly?
  • Do they enjoy chewing, foraging or digging?
  • Do they need to soak or bask?
  • Do they hunt, stalk, ambush, or chase?
  • What does this breed of cat do really well, naturally?
  • What does this breed of dog do on his/her own that might be a peek into their genes?
  • What was this breed of dog, cat, horse, etc. originally bred for?
  • What behaviors does this species do naturally in the wild?
  • What kinds of food are found in their country of origin?

Exploring the breed- and species-specific background for each animal in your home is where we should begin thinking about how to provide appropriate enrichment for them.

The video below is an example of how hedgehogs naturally behave in the wild when they have the opportunity to make their own choices.  Why does this matter?  Well, if a hedgehog owner knows how hedgehogs naturally behave, then they can then provide this kind of stimulating environment for their hedgehog in the home!  The same concept is true for your dog, cat, parrot, or turtle!  When we learn about how our animals would behave naturally in the wild, we then have the tools to help them thrive and live long, healthy, happy lives with us in our homes!

Behavioral enrichment should be random, interesting and novel. The goals of enrichment are to offer a sense of control by allowing animals to make choices and to stimulate species-appropriate behaviors


How You Can Provide Enrichment at Home! 

Most people have limited resources available to enrich the lives of their animal companions, which results in a huge lack of appropriate enrichment with most household pets, especially exotic animals.  Making a few changes to their daily routines can greatly enhance the life and longevity of your animal companion! They key is to make things simple and safe, but challenging for the animal.   

 

You don’t have to be rich to enrich your pet’s life!

One thing I learned very quickly while working at the zoo was that funds were limited.  If you wanted to do a lot of enrichment, you had to get creative and do it yourself.  This now carries over into our home, and also when I am working with a family that has a very limited budget.  I teach my clients that anyone can make enrichment toys out of almost anything, and in the process you get to recycle in a super fun way!

Every night we give our dog Hocus Pocus (and the cats) some sort of enrichment challenge to do.  Below is a video demonstrating a very easy one for her, but the point is to not just “give a dog a bone”.  Make them work for it!  Dogs are natural foragers, so allow your dog to utilize his/her natural instincts!  Be as creative as you want to be!  This kind of enrichment provides mental and physical stimulation, and in the process they learn that being alone is a Very Good Thing.  Bonus: it gives you time to do whatever you need to get done while they are having fun!



 

Here’s another suggestion: The old school (“traditional”) method of feeding animals out of a bowl does little to stimulate complex feeding behaviors.  Enrichment keeps animals active and interested, while encouraging natural behaviors!  The video below is a great example of providing simple mental and physical enrichment for a very smart and energetic dog.

And here’s another easy example that we do with our dog, Hocus Pocus every night!


Below are a few more examples of simple, easy enrichment that we use in our home on a daily basis.  Each of these are examples of natural behaviors that the animal would do in the wild if they were given choices.  Click the links to see each short video:

Make toys, or buy feeders that “feed” your cat’s natural hunting instinct!
The BoomerBall "Herding Ball" is designed for herding dogs (Shetland Sheep dogs, Australian Cattle dogs, Australian Shepards and Aussies). It's also great for horses when 3.5" holes are added so hay can be stuffed into ball.
The BoomerBall “Herding Ball” is designed for herding dogs (Shetland Sheep dogs, Australian Cattle dogs, Australian Shepards and Aussies). It’s also great for horses when 3.5″ holes are added so hay can be stuffed into ball.

What Science Has Shown Us

Results from a study showed that when dogs solved a problem and earned a reward they wagged their tails more.  These dogs were also more likely to try to solve the problem again, rather than if they were just given a reward.  The study also found that food was a preferred reward, compared to spending time with another dog, or being petting by a familiar human.

Now let that really sink in for a moment …. What does that tell you?

 


 

In the video below, Chopin, the Moluccan cockatoo, is being challenged mentally and physically to utilize his natural foraging and problem solving skills to retrieve a high-value nut from a puzzle feeder.  We used this kind of enrichment for Chopin to reduce aggression, frustration, and boredom.



 

I encourage everyone to learn what their animal enjoys doing.  Discover their natural behaviors. Learn the history of the breed, and the natural history of the species.  Once you understand these things, you can challenge the animal to move out of their stale comfort zone and step into the space of Who The Animal Really Is.   Enrichment allows us to bring out the inner “House Panther” in a lazy cat.  Enrichment transforms destructive dogs into mentally healthy canine companions.  It changes frustrated parrots into relaxed, feathered friends.

Daily enrichment doesn’t have to be complicated and time-consuming, but the more creative you get, the more fun your animals will have!  Make it a FUN challenge for you and them!

TIP: Be there with them as they discover their new toy.  Encourage them every time they make a small success!  Don’t just leave them alone with the new toy or puzzle feeder.  You wouldn’t offer a puzzle to a child, then leave him/her alone in a room to “figure it out.”  You would guide the child, and encourage the child when they make progress!  The same is true for our animal companions.  Encourage them.  Praise them when they make small progress, and even when they are just trying to figure it out!

enrichment

What kind of enrichment do you provide for your animals?  Please share in the comments below!

 

Chicken Soup for The Animal’s Soul and Body!

When we are not feeling well, or when the winter weather has chilled us to the bone, many people crave a steaming bowl of homemade soup to warm us up and make us feel cozy.  Did you know that we can do this for our animal companions, too?

You’ve probably heard that chicken noodle soup is kind of a “soul food.” When we’re sick, we want to eat foods that comfort us. And there’s research now that proves the science behind why certain types of foods are nourishing to people and comforting to pets. ~ Dr. Becker

A homemade bone broth is a nutritious option to offer your animal companion as a healthy comfort (and healing!) food at any time of year!  Bone broth is an excellent source of nourishment for animals recovering from illness.  It’s also helpful for those finicky eaters in our homes, and for senior pets with reduced appetites.  Bone broth is a source of nourishment that has been used for humans and animals for hundreds of years.

Bone Broth is Excellent Nourishment for Sick, Finicky and Older Pets ~  Dr. Becker

In the video below, Dr. Karen Becker, an integrative wellness veterinarian, shows you how to make a homemade bone broth.

Click here to download the transcript of Dr. Becker’s Interview from this video.

Source: http://healthypets.mercola.com/sites/healthypets/archive/2013/12/02/pet-bone-broth.aspx

The Scoop on Poop

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Poop.  Hippos navigate by it.  Sloths keep in touch through it.  Dung beetles eat it. Fish do it.  Toads do it.  Snakes, birds, turtles and elephants do it.  When wombats do it, it comes out shaped like a cube.  Whether you call it scat, droppings, feces, dung, stool, number two, pellets, caca, manure, frass, doo-doo, or another one of the many euphemisms available, it all refers to the same thing that every animal does.  We eat.  We digest.  We poop.

Everyone poops.  Yet poop is one of those subjects that many find difficult to talk about with a straight face.  Most adults would rather not discuss it at all, but it seems like kids are absolutely fascinated with it.  I’ll let you in on a secret: kids are on to something, because we can learn a ton about an animal by examining what it leaves behind.

When animals encounter scat, they receive a fast rundown of valuable information: the species, sex, age, health, and sexual maturity of its source.  Knowing this information in the wild can prevent violent run-ins between competing animals and also alert members of the same species that there are others in the area ready to mate.  In predator-prey situations, the prey may leave multiple droppings in an area to throw the predator off its trail.

I’m a big fan of animal poop.  It has many stories to tell and isn’t very good at keeping secrets.  For over 20 years, I’ve been keeping track of poop from countless animals in the zoo, nature centers, veterinary hospitals, and from my own animals at home.  Give me a glove, and if need be, I will dig through just about anything to discover the story inside.  Keeping a close eye on poop has not only helped me determine the health of countless animals, but this habit has also been an animal life saver many times during my years of working with them.

My fecal sleuthing came in handy recently.  We went on a trip out of town with our canine companion.  Three days into the trip, we became concerned because she had not produced a stool since we left home.  She wasn’t even trying to go!  Three days might not seem like a long time, but for a dog that poops once a day, this was quite abnormal.  Since it was over the Christmas holiday weekend, we did not have access to a vet.  So we did our research and tried every suggestion that we could find (vigorous exercise, more fiber, more water, and even belly massage), but none were helping.  We located a recommended vet and once they were open, we had her examined.  X-rays showed that she had a large amount of impacted feces.

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Luckily the stress of being at a strange and unfamiliar vet eventually caused our canine companion produce a rather enormous stool on her own.  But even after finally dropping a load that a baby hippo would be proud of, she still wasn’t out of the woods just yet.  The vet made some recommendations and we continued to monitor her until we felt that she was back on “schedule”.

So why am I discussing our dog’s bowel movements?  Well, because it’s a necessary part of living with – and responsibly caring for – our animal companions.  Whether you share your home with a rabbit, cat, ferret, dog, goat, snake, rat, pig, bird, tortoise, toad, or fish, you need to be aware of what’s coming out the back end.  Ask yourself if you know how often your animal companion urinates and defecates. What does it look like?  What’s the consistency?  What’s the color?  If you don’t know the answer to those questions, I strongly recommend that you find out the answers.

If I was not aware of how often she eliminates, and hadn’t been paying close attention to our canine companion’s poop schedule, I would have never recognized that she was way off schedule, and her constipation issue could have quickly become a very dangerous situation.

You can learn a world of information from a pile of excrement.  Just like a check-up list at the doctor’s office, a thorough examination of an animal’s waste can educate you about its health.

“A dog’s bowel and urinary habits are outward signs of her health status. It is important to monitor the amount, frequency, color and consistency of dog feces and urine, giving particular attention to changes in normal pattern.” ~ Bess Pierce, DVM, associate professor of community practice at the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine in Blacksburg, Virginia

Pay attention to what you scoop.  Daily “Poop Patrol” is one of the easiest and quickest ways to discover any health issues, and also to know if all is well with their digestion and health.  Even if you have multiple species in your home that are all sharing a litter box, you should still be able to clearly identity each animal’s fecal matter and even their urine. You should be in the yard, looking for what your dog left behind.

The Cat Doctor has an easy list to help you identify your feline companion’s poop. You can even discover the scoop on parrot poop and learn Bird Poop 101!  For the horse lovers, there is Horse Manure Mania , Small Mammal poop resources , as well as reptile and amphibian help too!

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Monitoring your animal companion’s waste is crucial.  As unappealing as it may seem to become a poop investigator, it’s part of what you signed up for when you invited them into your home.  Take the time to investigate who’s poo is who’s.  Learn what’s normal for each of your animal companions.  Once you know what’s normal, it’ll be much easier to recognize when something is wrong, or if they need medical attention.

P.S. Remember to take each of your animal’s vet records with you on any trips out of town. You never know when you’re going to need them and your vet may not be open when you do.

I would like to give thanks to Dr. Dana Still at the Veterinary Medical Center in Johnson City, Tennessee for seeing us on such short notice. Their professionalism and care was greatly appreciated.